Annotated Bibliography

Abbott, Judy A. and Saundra E. Faris. “Integrating Technology into Preservice Literacy Instructions: A survey of Elementary Education Students’ Attitudes toward Computers”. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, Volume 33, 2000 – Issue 2, February 24, 2014, Pages 149-161, Taylor & Francis Online,

  • As technology is being integrated into education programs more and more around the country, Abbott and Faris wanted to understand whether or not students actually enjoyed using the new technology or if they preferred more traditional methods. They conducted a survey as to the attitudes toward computers before and after undergoing a course that had consistent computer use and integrated technology throughout. The data shows that there is a meaningful change in attitude between the beginning and end of the course after using the technology. As a result of significant class assignments ascertaining to technology, supportive collaboration from the teacher, and a number of different uses, attitudes toward computer use in the classroom improved greatly. Although this study was performed many years ago, and the type of technology integration we would see today may be different, this article still gives real evidence to the fact that students enjoy learning through technology and feel positively about its presence in the classroom. Although it is easy to say, “kids enjoy playing games more than doing times tables,” this article gives clear empirical evidence to the fact that there is a positive sentiment around its use, especially after undergoing a class where it is used.

Davis, Julie D. “’Alexa, Do You Belong in the Classroom?”. George Lucas Educational Foundation, March 20, 2019, Edutopia,

  • Julie Davis in this article unpacks the “learning possibilities when considering the use of voice devices in the classroom.” She looks at how new voice technologies from the last few years, such as Amazon’s Alexa and Google Assistant, can be integrated into a classroom setting in order to boost engagement and overall student performance. It gives important stipulations to the potential use of this in a classroom. A teacher must not replace face-to-face teaching, but simply use it to supplement their own direction to students. She speaks specifically of the Echo Dot Kids Addition and its use of a feature called “FreeTime.” This feature acts as a filter and prevents any inappropriate use of the device and only allows interaction when the teacher initiates it. This is a great example of a way that technology has been innovated to be an integrated tool specifically used for learning. This article is one of the more relevant pieces to my paper, because it is a modern example of technology that is still being experimented with in the classroom.  

Georgina, David A., and Charles C. Hosford. “Higher Education Faculty Perceptions on Technology Integration and Training”. Teaching and Teaching Education, Volume 25 – Issue 5, July 2009, Pages 690-696, Science Direct,

  • Similar to the study done by Abbott and Faris, this article discusses sentiment and perceptions of technology in the classroom. However, Georgina and Hosford are looking specifically at the attitudes that teachers hold in respect to its use as opposed to students. This is an important thing to note that many researchers do not consider. Even if test scores are better, if the technology makes the job of the teacher more difficult it may not be completely effective. This study also examines the difficulty in integration of tech into the classroom depending on the technology literacy skills of the teacher and on training on the best ways to use the tech. The results of this study indicate that overall teachers do appreciate having technology available and that more familiarity with technology leads to easier integration into the classroom. Some suggestions are offed about training courses and methods to make the integration easier as well. This will offer another perspective onto the benefits of technology besides just the student. It also addresses the challenges the teacher faces in bringing tech into the classroom and acknowledges that this is not always a seamless process.

Kennedy, Emma. “Can Virtual Reality Revolutionize Education?” CNN Health+, November 1, 2008,,

  • This article gives a relevant example of how technology innovations can be transformed into useful classroom tools. Virtual reality has been at the forefront of news and technological advancement as it offers a unique range of uses. Many people jump straight to video games when VR comes to mind, but over the last few years, it has popped up in places like flight simulation and training for pilots, exposure therapy to help treat PTSD patients, surgeons practicing complex procedures and medical students using 3-D images to gain a greater understanding of the anatomy of the body. This article gives examples of how this technology is being implemented into classroom of all ages to advance learning objectives through its “ability to inspire and grab the attention of young minds.” Students can take virtual reality field trips to historical locations or observe complicated scientific simulations. Although the technology exists, the limitation comes with a lack of quality content. As more learning resources are developed, VR could become a staple in the classroom, but it should not replace the “social experience” of learning. Content is important, but learning to interact and build relationships is a vital part of complete education.

Means, Barbara. “Technology and Education Change”. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, Volume 42, 2010 – Issue 3, February 21, 2014, Pages 285-307, Taylor & Francis Online,

  • This study performed by Barbara Means explores the implementation of technology into the classroom and directly assesses gains in performance. After interviewing and observing test scores, they found that some students performed better and some showed no significant difference. The key is how the teachers using the software and the degree of collaboration they used to help the students to understand the technology. This scholarly article is very relevant to my research project because it offers some empirical evidence to the effect that technology has on student performance. It also addresses some of the challenges that going along with using more tech in the classroom such as “instructional coherence and competition for instructional time.” It uses relatively minor adjustments to the way the curriculum is given to the students but can offer some insight as to what the benefits are as long as it is used in the proper way.  

No author. “What is Successful Technology Integration?”. George Lucas Educational Foundation, November 5, 2007, Edutopia,

  • This is perhaps one of the most useful pieces of research for my project. The article gives an in depth break down of different strategies of integration and looks at the different ways in which effectively integrated technology can increase learning. Its types of learning covered include blended instruction (online and face-to-face), technology based projects, game-based learning, interactive instructional tools (smartboards), and a number of other examples. It goes on to give several frameworks for this effective integration for teachers to use in order to make the transition smooth and successful. And finally, throughout the article, it gives links to different resources and examples of ways that technology has been integrated into the classroom. The structure of this paper follows that of what my research paper in answering a few important questions: why should we integrate technology, what tech innovations looks like, and how we can go about putting these tools into the classroom. I also plan to use some of the other articles that are connected to this one for good examples of technology in education. Edutopia offers a variety of resources to understand how the school system can be improved the use of tech.

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